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Hokuei

Description:
Nakamura Shikan II as Tadanobu (actually a fox in disguise) in Hanayagura hitome senbon, Naka Theater, Osaka
Signature:
Shunbaisai Hokuei ga
Seals:
Artist seal: Hokuei; Block cutter: hori Kuma; Printer: suri Toyo
Publisher:
Kinkadô Konishi (金花堂小西)
Date:
5/1835
Format:
(H x W)
Ôban nishiki-e
36.0 x 25.2 cm
Impression:
Excellent deluxe impression with metallics
Condition:
Excellent color, surimono-style metallics, unbacked thick paper; small repaired wormhole LR alongside Kinkadô seal, faint discolored band along bottom edge
Price (USD/¥):
SOLD

Inquiry (Ref #HKE71)

Comments:
Background

Hanayagura hitome senbon (A thousand fragrances in the flower tower: 花櫓詠吉野) was a variant of the more celebrated Yoshitsune senbon zakura (Yoshitsune & the thousand cherry trees: 義経千本桜) written by Takeda Izumo II, Miyoshi Shoraku, and Namiki Senryû. It was first performed at the Takemoto-za, Osaka in 1747.

The play involves various episodes from an historical tale involving the Heike-Genji (Taira-Minamoto) clan warfare. The real Tadanobu is an ally of Lady Shizuka Gozen, the concubine of the legendary warrior Minamoto no Yoshitsune (1159-1189) in flight from his half brother Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147-1199), Japan's military leader.

Yoshitsune is forced to prepare to leave Shizuka, whereupon he gives her a hand drum as a keepsake. When she is attacked by a retainer of Yoritomo's, the fox-Tadanobu (taking human form) saves her. Yoshitsune observes this from a distance and gives the fox-impostor a suit of armor, thinking that he is entrusting Shizuka Gozen's safety to the real Tadanobu. But when she plays the drum, Tadanobu undergoes a metamorphosis and begins to dance, his movements animal-like, for the drum is made from the skin of his parent. Finally, all is revealed, and Yoshitsune gives Tadanobu the hand drum in appreciation of his loyalty. In one last act of dedication, the fox drives off six armed priests sent to assassinate Yoshitsune before returning to his animal world.

Design

Shikan dances as the fox Tadanobu in the Fushimi-Inari Shrine scene from Act 2. He performs what is called a kitsune roppô ("fox in six directions": 狐六方) along the hanamichi (the "flower path" 花道 or walkway extending from the kabuki stage into the audience section). Roppô a the term used for a dynamic, swaggering, and explosive dance performed in aragoto ("wild business": 荒事) kabuki plays. The six directions were north, east, south, west, heaven, and earth, and the term implied that the dance movement was so expansive that it must contain all directions.

In this fox-version of the roppô, the actor's movements are typically agitated as he jumps about or crouches to mime the movements of a wild animal, and the actor's voice is high pitched and unevenly modulated. (The actor will typically put his hands in the "fox paws" position, a gesture sometimes seen in ukiyo-e prints.)

Kabuki audiences have always found this scene exciting and other-worldly, which Hokuei has captured brilliantly in his design. Kitsunebi (fox fires: 狐火), a type of shinka (spirit flame: 神火), hover above Tadanobu's head and flicker against a black night sky. His limbs extend in anatomically challenging combinations and his robes swing about, the tassels at the bottom adding an effective touch of movement and energy.

The mostly trimmed seal at the lower right identifies the block cutter hori Kuma (ほりくま), that is, hori Kumazô, 彫熊造 and the printer (suri Toyo すりとよ ), namely suri Toyosaburô 摺豊三良. The Kinkadô publisher seal is hand-stamped in the lower right corner.

This is unquestionably one of Hokuei's most admired and sought-after designs.

References: WAS-IV: no. 534; IKBYS-II, no. 352; IKB-I, no. 2-440; KNP-VI, p. 299; KAM, p. 249; NKE, p. 708